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'Britain's Marvelous Machins' - Varieties of the Denominated Printings 1967-2017

Introduction

Introduction & Treatment

In 1967, the Machin definitive stamp series was introduced as the successor to the Queen Elizabeth II Wilding stamps and continues in print today. The Machin series is named for the artist, Arnold Machin, RA, OBE, who produced the bas-reliefs used as the basis for the stamp's image artwork. The series has become iconic not only for its long-running nature but also for its 7,000+ cataloged varieties. These varieties and their origins are the subject of this exhibit whose storyline is presented using predominately source-level stamps.

Objective for Exhibit

From the earlier Wilding printings, the Machin series advanced the concept of 'stamp-as-interactive-device' in support of mail processing automation. As such, it is a multilayer, complex technical artifact that not only indicates value but enables automated facing, sorting and service class equipment to function properly. Explaining the Machin's complex nature, resulting from production process advances & limitations, advancing sorting technology, security and environmental concerns is the objective of this exhibit.

This exhibit won a Large Gold, the APS Grand Award and The Philatelic Foundation Best Research Award at the APS Stampshow 2017 in Richmond, Virginia

Exhibit Chapter & Section Plan

Ch. 1 - Artwork
1 - Queen's Head Image; 2 - Fonts; 3 - Value Tablets; 4 - Regional Emblems

Ch. 2 - Paper & Gum
1 - Brightness; 2 - Large Formats, 3 - Paper Thickness, Repair, Errors; 4 - Adhesives & Under/Ooerprints

Ch. 3 - Color
1 - Basic Range; 2 - ATN Cylinder & Iriodin® Ink Effects; 3 - Color Errors

Ch. 4 - Phosphor - Fluor
1 - Stamp Identity; 2 - Band Techniques; 3 - Band Errors; 4 - Other Varieties; 5 - Phosphor Coated Paper [PCP] 6 - Phosphor/Fluor

Ch. 5 - Process
1 - Basic Print Processes Used; 2 - Process Errors

Ch. 6 - Perforation, Die Cuts & Security
1 - Basic Formats; 2 - Errors; 3 - Security; Conclusion


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Frame 1

INTRODUCTION
  1. Introduction
CHAPTER 1 - ARTWORK: HEAD, VALUE TABLET & EMBLEM
  1. Chapter Introduction
Section 1: Queen's Head Image
  1. Head Artwork Origin
  2. See sheet 3
  3. Un-adopted Photograph
  4. Adopted Photograph
  5. Head Type Differentiation
  6. Head Type Differentiation
  7. Double Heads
Section 2: Font Types
  1. Original Fonts and Jeffery Mathews Redesigns
Section 3: Value Tablets
  1. Position
  2. Floating Value Tablets
  3. Value Tablet Artwork Error
Section 4: Regional Emblems
  1. Northern Ireland
  2. Isle of Man, Scotland, & Wales
  3. Cylinder Induced Artwork Flaw
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Frame 2

CHAPTER 2 - PAPER & GUM

Section 1: Paper Brightness
  1. Reasoning
  2. Pre-Decimal Era
  3. Decimal Era
  4. ATN Era
Section 2: Large Format Papers
  1. Types
Section 3: Paper Thickness, Paper Repair, Errors of Paper
  1. Thin, Thick & Translucent Paper
  2. Ribbed & Translucent
  3. Paper Repair
  4. Errors of Paper
  5. Errors of Paper
  6. Coating Errors
Section 4: Adhesives & Overprints
  1. Gum Types
  2. Overprints - Image Side
  3. Overprints - Gum Side
  4. Paper Coating & Gum Co-Evolution: Active Periods of Use - Denominated Printings
  5. See sheet 31
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Frame 3

CHAPTER 3 - COLOR

Section 1: Basic Color Range
  1. Cambridge Color Trials
  2. Pre-decimal Color Palette
  3. Original Decimal Color Palette
  4. R-M Training Stamps
  5. Jeffery Mathews (JM) Color Palette
  6. Colors Not Included in the Jeffery Mathews Palette, Unique Large Format Colors, Bi-Color Small Outline Printings
  7. Photogravure Bi-color Large Format High Values
  8. Regional Printings from National Graduated Background, Pre-Production Color Verification "00" Printings
  9. Royal Mail Bright v Light Blue
  10. Harrison Inking Trials
Section 2: ATN Cylinder & Iriodin® Ink Effects on Color
  1. Color-tied Cylinders
  2. C-T Cyls. & Litho
  3. Iriodin® Ink
Section 3: Color Errors
  1. Ink Mix Integrity & Omission
  2. £1 Controversy
  3. Pinkish Lilac
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Frame 4

CHAPTER 4 - PHOSPHOR / FLUOR

Introduction & Trials
  1. Introduction
  2. De La Rue Phosphor Trial
  3. Phosphor Tagging Trial
Section 1: Stamp Identity
  1. Service Class Solution
Section 2: Banded Printing Techniques
  1. Double & Single Band Technique
  2. Side Bar Technique
  3. The Short Band Technique
  4. Blind Panes
  5. Inset, Short and Notched Band Techniques
  6. Single Band Makeup Rate Stamps
Section 3: Band Errors
  1. Broad Bands
  2. Complex Phosphor Ink Design Shifts
  3. Band Errors pm PCP-GA Paper-Gum Combination
  4. Double Direction Shift - Notched Bands
  5. Variable Band Width - Cylinder Mystery
  6. Reversed Bands
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Frame 5

CHAPTER 4 - PHOSPHOR / FLUOR (cont)

Section 4: Other Varieties
  1. Phosphor Compound Errors
  2. Missing Phosphor
  3. Missing Phosphor
  4. Preprinted Phosphor Paper (PPP) & All Over Phosphor (AOP)
Section 5: Phosphor Coated Paper
  1. Initial Trials
  2. Trials
  3. PCP Production
  4. OFPP, OFNP, Fluor & EME Experiments
Section 6: Phosphor/Fluor
  1. Introduction
  2. Phosphorescence Level Control
  3. Split Band AY Phosphor-Fluor Compound Error
  4. Blue Fluor
  5. Transition to A2 Phosphor
  6. £1 Gravure Printings
  7. Band Position Errors
  8. 50th Anniversary
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Frame 6

CHAPTER 5 - PROCESS
  1. Printers
Section 1: Basic Processes
  1. Printing Methods
  2. Intaglio Die-Roller Master Plate
  3. Large Format Intaglio Printings
  4. Photogravure
  5. Photogravure
  6. Photogravure
  7. Photogravure Direction of Print (DoP)
  8. Harrison Jumelle Press
  9. Penny Black Promotional Proof
  10. Intaglio: Crona
  11. Crona Printings Plate Number Structure
  12. Photo Offset Lithography
  13. Photo Offset Lithography
  14. Harrison Large Photogravure Trials
  15. See sheet 95
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Frame 7

CHAPTER 5 - PROCESS (cont)

Section 1: Basic Processes (cont)
  1. Gravure - Electro Mechanical and Digital Engraving
  2. Gravure - Electro Mechanical and Digital Engraving
  3. Lasergravure Trial
Section 2: Process Errors
  1. Photogravure Cylinder Flaws
  2. Phosphor Printing
  3. Weak Print - Insufficient Ink
  4. Press Ink Errors
  5. See sheet 103
  6. Setoff vs Offset - Four Examples
  7. See sheet 105
  8. Color Ink - Phosphor Ink Synchronisation
  9. Separation Process - Sheets
  10. Separation Process - Booklets
  11. Separation Process - Booklets
  12. Separation Process - Post Office
  13. Press Operation Error
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Frame 8

CHAPTER 6 - PERFORATION, DIE-CUT & SECURITY
  1. Introduction
Section 1: Basic Perforation Formats
  1. Perforation Gauge
  2. Rotary Perforators
  3. Comb Perforators
  4. Straight-Edge Printings
Section 2: Perforation Errors
  1. 17 Pin Variety
  2. Photogravure Imperforate Pairs
  3. Misfed/Misalign
Section 3: Security
  1. Origins of Security Concerns, Elliptical Perforations
  2. First Security Overprint
  3. Security Ink Introduced Variety
  4. Silver Queen Error, Ghost Error
  5. Fraudulent Re-Use, Die-Cut Ovals
  6. Security Code Overprint
CONCLUSION
  1. Conclusion
  2. See sheet 127