The Repaired Impressions of Die I Penny Red Plate 17


Plate 17 was completed on 7 September 1841 and first printed from on 8 September, a fact (unusually) recorded in the General Accounts Ledger, the printer responsible being W. Fisher. The plate was registered on the 10th of the same month. The earliest known usage currently recorded is 14 October 1841. It is estimated 22,675 sheets in total were printed from the plate before the final printing on 1 December 1841. The plate was destroyed on 18 March 1842.

Plate wear resulted in marked wear of the finer lines of the engraving and ragged looking right borders. As a result the plate was repaired by coincident re-entry at some point in its life. The repair resulted in the restoration of the engraved lines of the Queen's head and worn engine turning, particularly of the right border.

Unusually, on this plate the Transfer Roller Lines (TRLs), or lateral burrs created by the application of the transfer roller, were in many cases not burnished out, leaving the distinctive appearance of many repaired impressions, showing a coloured streak between impressions. In many cases the repair also had the effect of strengthening the right frame line.

Recent published research (Patmore, A, The London Philatelist, Vol. 128, No. 1470) suggests the plate was in a hardened condition when the repairs by re-entry were performed, resulting in TRLs but only slightly thinned check letters.

The top 3 rows (except AA) are known to have been repaired, a total of 35 impressions. This would have required some time off press to perform the repairs.

This display is intended to compare the characteristics of the repaired impressions with those from the original state. A summary of the print record is provided at the end of this display together with consideration of when the repairs may have occurred.


Frame 1

  1. Introduction
  2. Position AB
  3. Positions AB-AD
  4. Position AC
  5. Positions AE-AG
  6. Positions AH-AK
  7. Positions AL-BB
  8. Position BE
  9. Positions BF-BK
  10. Positions BG, BD-BE + CA-CF
  11. Position BI
  12. Positions BI-BL
  13. Positions CC-CF
  14. Positions CF-CI
  15. Positions CK-CL
  16. Daily Sheet Printing Record